Selective, competitive NMDA receptor antagonist
Widely used, selective and competitive NMDA receptor antagonist which binds at the glutamate site. It is the more active form of DL-AP5.
D-AP5 blocks induction of LTP (long term potentiation) and impairs spatial learning.
I made the discovery that the NMDA receptor is the trigger for the induction of LTP using D-AP5 synthesized by Jeff Watkins, the discoverer of the NMDA receptor... I now obtain my D-AP5 from Hello Bio. I love their products and ethos and that is why I accepted a position on their Scientific Advisory Board.
Professor Graham Collingridge, winner of The Brain Prize, 2016
My lab used D-AP5 from Hello Bio and were very happy with it. It behaved exactly as expected! Professor Kei Cho, Chair of Neuroscience, University of Bristol, UK (Hello Bio Scientific Advisory Board Member)
My lab is very satisfied with your D-AP5 quality and price. Verified customer, European Brain Research Institute (EBRI)
I used to buy D-AP5 from another company, but Hello Bio is far more cost-effective and works great in our experiments. Verified customer, University of South Carolina
The D-AP5 works as expected, great price. Verified customer, UCSF
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The NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 is commonly used to inhibit NMDA mediated synaptic plasticity. It is often used at concentrations of 50 μM. D-AP5 from Hello Bio completely abolishes evoked NMDAR mediated currents at 50 μM and reduces NMDA currents at lower concentrations of 1 and 10 μM (see Fig 1 above).
#Protocol 1: Evoked NMDA receptor currents
- Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
- NMDA currents were evoked via a stimulating electrode placed in layers II/III and evoked by a single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec at a stimulus intensity that gave a reliable NMDA current.
- Neurons were held a +40 mV to relieve NMDA currents from their voltage-dependent Mg2+ block.
- NMDA currents were continually stimulated and recorded in response to continual bath applications of D-AP5 until NMDA currents were completely abolished.
- All NMDAR recordings were made in the presence of GABAA-R and AMPAR antagonists.
Storing and Using Your Product
Soluble in water (100mM)
This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.
References for D-AP5
NMDA receptors, learning and memory: chronic intraventricular infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist d-AP5 interacts directly with the neural mechanisms of spatial learning.Morris RG et al (2013) Eur J Neurosci 37(5) : 700-17.PubMedID: 23311352
Actions of D and L forms of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate in the cat spinal cord.Davies J et al (1982) Brain Res 235(2) : 378-86.PubMedID: 6145492
Effects of pre or posttraining dorsal hippocampus D-AP5 injection on fear conditioning to tone, background, and foreground context.Schenberg EE et al (2008) Hippocampus 18(11) : 1089-93.PubMedID: 18727044
Artifactual hyperpolarization during extracellular electrical stimulation: Proposed mechanism of high-rate neuromodulationLesperance et al (2018) Brain stimulation 11(3) : 582-591PubMedID: 29289565
Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors.Belmer et al (2018) Neuropsychopharmacology doi: 10.1038/s41386-018-0013-0. : [Epub ahead of print]PubMedID: 29453444
Kcnj6(GIRK2) trisomy is not sufficient for conferring the susceptibility to infantile spasms seen in the Ts65Dn mouse model of down syndrome.Joshi et al (2018) Epilepsy Res. 154 : 82-88.PubMedID: 29929098
Co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA regulates hippocampal states.Takacs et al(2018) Nat Commun 9(1) : 2848PubMedID: 30030438
Vascular Compartmentalization of Functional Hyperemia from the Synapse to the Pia.Rungta et al(2018) Neuron 99(2) : 362-375PubMedID: 29937277
Pyramidal cell activity levels affect the polarity of gene transciption changes in interneurons.Parrish et al(2018) J Neurophysiol doi: 10.1152 : /jn.00287.2018.PubMedID: 30110232
Postsynaptic p47phox regulates long-term depression in the hippocampusCho et al(2018) Cell Discovery 4 : 44
Early life stress impairs postnatal oligodendrogenesis and adult behavior through activity-dependent mechanismsTeissier et al(2018) bioRxiv https://doi.org/ : 10.1101/369660
Structural basis of subunit selectivity for competitive NMDA receptor antagonists with preference for GluN2A over GluN2B subunits.Lind et al(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(33) : 6942-6951PubMedID: 28760974
Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission evokes a delayed excitation in lateral dorsal striatal cholinergic interneuronsChuhma et al (2018) eLIFE 7:e39786 : DOI: 10.7554/eLife.39786
How do I solubilise (dissolve) D-AP5?
You can solubilise D-AP5 in water, up to a concentration of 100 mM. Once D-AP5 is in suspension, if you have problems solubilising it, you can try:
- Stirring – try rapidly stirring or vortexing in a whirlimixer
- Heating – try warming it gently in a water bath
- Sonicating – sonication may also be worth a try
Temperature is very important when solubilising biochemicals. For example if you’ve cooled or frozen your D-AP5 solution, it may have precipitated out of solution. So here’s an important rule – make sure you check that D-AP5 is fully re-dissolved before use.
Do I need to re-weigh the D-AP5 in my vial?
Yes - you should weigh out the quantity of D-AP5 that you require for your experiment as the amount of product in our vials isn’t weighed out accurately enough for direct addition of solution. There are some exceptions to this but if this is the case, it will be stated clearly on the datasheet.
How do I store D-AP5?
Storing D-AP5 as a solid: If you keep the vial kept tightly sealed at room temperature, you can store D-AP5 for up to 6months.
Storing and working with solutions of D-AP5:
If you are planning on storing and working with solutions of D-AP5, we recommend preparing and using your solutions on the same day. However, if this isn’t possible and you need to prepare stock solutions of D-AP5 beforehand, you should aliquot out the solution into tightly sealed vials at store at -20°C. We generally recommend that these will be useable for up to one month. You should also allow D-AP5 to equilibrate to RT for at least one hour before opening and using.