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Tetrodotoxin citrate

(HB1035)
Data

Product overview

  • Name
    Tetrodotoxin citrate
  • Short description
    Potent, selective, use-dependent Na+ channel blocker. Citrate Salt.
  • Biological description

    Potent, selective and reversible, voltage dependent Na+ channel blocker. Use dependent. Citrate Salt. Commonly used in electrophysiological preparations to block or reduce excitability.

  • Alternative names
    TTX; TTX citrate
  • Biological action
    Blocker
  • Purity
    >99%
  • Special requirements
    As this product is a toxin, customers are required to complete a short end user declaration when ordering. Our customer care team will be happy to help you with this.
  • Customer comments

    Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly as expected and blocked action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above. I would recommend the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio for use in electrophysiology recordings. Matt Udakis, PhD student, University of Bath, UK

    Hello Bio produce very high quality TTX citrate, which fully blocks NaV channels and provides good value for money.Verified customer, The University of Edinburgh

    Just washed the Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) on and it works as expected (it inhibits the fibre volley at 1 μM).Verified customer, The University of Bristol

    I am fully satisfied with Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) from Hello Bio Verified customer, UTHSC

    Just what we expected. We are using TTX (Tetrodotoxin citrate) for many years as our tool compound to block voltage-gated Na currents. TTX citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly in our laboratory. Verified customer, University of Vigo

  • Citations

Images

Properties

  • Chemical name
    Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imin o-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]py rimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
  • Molecular Weight
    319.27
  • Chemical structure
    Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX citrate) [18660-81-6]
  • Molecular Formula
    C11H17N3O8
  • CAS Number
    18660-81-6
  • PubChem identifier
    54592378
  • SMILES
    C(C(=O)O)C(CC(=O)O)(C(=O)O)O.C([C@@]1([C@@H]2[C@@H]3[C@H](N=C(N[C@]34[C@@H]([C@H]1O[C@]([C@H]4O)(O2)O)O)N)O)O)O
  • Source
    Extracted from fugu
  • InChi
    InChI=1S/C11H17N3O8.C6H8O7/c12-8-13-6(17)2-4-9(19,1-15)5-3(16)10(2,14-8)7(18)11(20,21-4)22-5;7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10/h2-7,15-20H,1H2,(H3,12,13,14);13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12)/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6-,7+,9+,10+,11+;/m1./s1
  • InChiKey
    YUJWMDOXROTQCW-WNGAXIQVSA-N
  • Appearance
    White solid

Applications

  • Application notes

    Tetrodotoxin is commonly used in electrophysiology to block excitability by inhibiting action potential firing within neurons. It is commonly applied at concentrations of 1 μM. Tetrodotoxin from Hello Bio works as expected and blocks action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above (see Fig 1 and 2 above).

     

    #Protocol 1: Effect of TTX citrate on action potentials in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and injected with a 500 pA 300 ms current step to induce action potential firing.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM. After each drug application a current step was recorded to assess action potential blockade.

     

    #Protocol 2: Effect of TTX citrate on EPSPs and action potential firing in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and EPSP were evoked by placing a stimulating electrode close to the recorded the neuron in layer II/III.
    • EPSPs and action potentials were evoked by single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec with an intensity that produced both an EPSP and action potential.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM whist continually evoking and recording EPSP/A.Ps.

Storing and Using Your Product

  • Storage instructions
    -20°C (desiccate)
  • Solubility overview
    Soluble in water (1 mg/ml)
  • Important
    This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.

References for Tetrodotoxin citrate

  • The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (+/-)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.

    Gleitz J et al (1996) Neuropharmacology 35(12) : 1743-52.
    PubMedID: 9076753
  • Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity.

    Ono T et al (2013) J Nippon Med Sch 80(5) : 350-61.
    PubMedID: 24189353
  • Tetrodotoxin: chemistry, toxicity, source, distribution and detection.

    Bane V et al (2014) Toxins (Basel) 6(2) : 693-755.
    PubMedID: 24566728
  • Tetrodotoxin for moderate to severe cancer pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel design multicenter study.

    Hagen NA et al (2008) J Pain Symptom Manage 35(4) : 420-9.
    PubMedID: 18243639
Our products in action
The following papers have cited the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate (HB1035) from Hello Bio. If you have published a paper using this product, and it is not shown here, then please tell us! We will send you a free gift as a thank you!
  • An event-based paradigm for analyzing fluorescent astrocyte activity uncovers novel single-cell and population-level physiology

    Wang et al(2018) bioRxiv : doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/504
  • Endogenous TRPA1 and TRPV1 activity potentiates glutamatergic input to spinal lamina I neurons in inflammatory pain.

    Pan et al(2019) J Neurochem : doi: 10.1111/jnc.14677 [Epub ahe
    PubMedID: 30716174
  • Sonic hedgehog signaling in astrocytes mediates cell-type-specific synaptic organization

    Hill et al (2019) bioRxiv : https://doi.org/10.1101/537860
  • Tetrabromobisphenol A-induced depolarization of rat cerebellar granule cells: ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    Diamandakis et al(2019) Chemosphere 223 : 67-73
    PubMedID: 30769291
  • Circuit refinement in mouse visual cortex during development

    Wong et al (2019) Georg August Universitaet Goettingen : Thesis
  • α2δ-1–Bound N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors Mediate Morphine-induced Hyperalgesia and Analgesic Tolerance by Potentiating Glutamatergic Input in Rodents

    Deng et al (2019) Anesthesiology : doi: 10.1097/ALN.00000000000026
    PubMedID: 30839350
  • Higher-Order Thalamic Circuits Channel Parallel Streams of Visual Information in Mice.

    Bennett et al (2019) Neuron : pii: S0896-6273(19)30119-9
    PubMedID: 30850257
  • Beyond the suprachiasmatic nucleus: circadian rhythmicity shapes astrocyte morphology and neuronal function in hippocampal area CA1

    Scimemi et al (2019) bioRxiv : 10.1101/666073
  • Beyond the suprachiasmatic nucleus: circadian rhythmicity shapes astrocyte morphology and neuronal function in hippocampal area CA1

    Scimemi et al (2019) bioRxiv : 10.1101/666073
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Support & Resources

Reviews & Product Guides

Reviews

  • Verified customer

    Great product. Great quality. Comes in an air tight humidity free container! I use this product all the time for ephys.
  • Verified customer

    Good product, good price. Works as indicated.
  • Verified customer, University of Vigo

    Just what we expected. We are using TTX (Tetrodotoxin citrate) for many years as our tool compound to block voltage-gated Na currents. TTX citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly in our laboratory.
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