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Tetrodotoxin citrate


Product overview

  • Name
    Tetrodotoxin citrate
  • Short description
    Potent, selective, use-dependent Na+ channel blocker. Citrate Salt.
  • Biological description

    Potent, selective and reversible, voltage dependent Na+ channel blocker. Use dependent. Citrate Salt. Commonly used in electrophysiological preparations to block or reduce excitability.

  • Alternative names
    TTX|TTX citrate
  • Biological action
  • Purity
  • Special requirements
    As this product is a toxin, customers are required to complete a short end user declaration when ordering. Our customer care team will be happy to help you with this.
  • Customer comments

    Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly as expected and blocked action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above. I would recommend the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio for use in electrophysiology recordings. Matt Udakis, PhD student, University of Bath, UK

    Hello Bio produce very high quality TTX citrate, which fully blocks NaV channels and provides good value for money.Verified customer, The University of Edinburgh

    Just washed the Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) on and it works as expected (it inhibits the fibre volley at 1 μM).Verified customer, The University of Bristol

    I am fully satisfied with Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) from Hello Bio Verified customer, UTHSC

    Just what we expected. We are using TTX (Tetrodotoxin citrate) for many years as our tool compound to block voltage-gated Na currents. TTX citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly in our laboratory. Verified customer, University of Vigo

  • Citations



  • Chemical name
    Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imin o-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]py rimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
  • Molecular Weight
  • Chemical structure
    Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX citrate) [18660-81-6]
  • Molecular Formula
  • CAS Number
  • PubChem identifier
  • Source
    Extracted from fugu
  • InChi
  • InChiKey
  • Appearance
    White solid


  • Application notes

    Tetrodotoxin is commonly used in electrophysiology to block excitability by inhibiting action potential firing within neurons. It is commonly applied at concentrations of 1 μM. Tetrodotoxin from Hello Bio works as expected and blocks action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above (see Fig 1 and 2 above).


    #Protocol 1: Effect of TTX citrate on action potentials in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and injected with a 500 pA 300 ms current step to induce action potential firing.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM. After each drug application a current step was recorded to assess action potential blockade.


    #Protocol 2: Effect of TTX citrate on EPSPs and action potential firing in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and EPSP were evoked by placing a stimulating electrode close to the recorded the neuron in layer II/III.
    • EPSPs and action potentials were evoked by single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec with an intensity that produced both an EPSP and action potential.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM whist continually evoking and recording EPSP/A.Ps.

Storing and Using Your Product

  • Storage instructions
    -20°C (desiccate)
  • Solubility overview
    Soluble in water (1 mg/ml)
  • Important
    This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.

References for Tetrodotoxin citrate

  • The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (+/-)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.

    Gleitz J et al (1996) Neuropharmacology 35(12) : 1743-52.
    PubMedID: 9076753
  • Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity.

    Ono T et al (2013) J Nippon Med Sch 80(5) : 350-61.
    PubMedID: 24189353
  • Tetrodotoxin: chemistry, toxicity, source, distribution and detection.

    Bane V et al (2014) Toxins (Basel) 6(2) : 693-755.
    PubMedID: 24566728
  • Tetrodotoxin for moderate to severe cancer pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel design multicenter study.

    Hagen NA et al (2008) J Pain Symptom Manage 35(4) : 420-9.
    PubMedID: 18243639
Our products in action
The following papers have cited the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate (HB1035) from Hello Bio. If you have published a paper using this product, and it is not shown here, then please tell us! We will send you a free gift as a thank you!
  • Ethanol-Sensitive Pacemaker Neurons in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus.

    Abrahao et al(2016) Neuropsychopharmacology doi: 10.1038 : /npp.2016.251
    PubMedID: 27827370
  • Differential excitatory control of 2 parallel basket cell networks in amygdala microcircuits.

    Andrasi et al(2017) PloS Biol. 15(5) : e2001421
    PubMedID: 28542195
  • Limiting habenular hyperactivity ameliorates maternal separation-driven depressive-like symptoms.

    Tchenio et al(2017) Nat Commun 8(1) : 1135
    PubMedID: 29074844
  • Nucleus Accumbens Subnuclei Regulate Motivated Behavior via Direct Inhibition and Disinhibition of VTA Dopamine Subpopulations

    Yang et al(2018) Neuron 97, : 1-16.
  • Enhanced Postsynaptic GABAB Receptor Signaling in Adult Spinal Projection Neurons after Neonatal Injury.

    Baccei and Brewer (2018) Neuroscience 384 : 329-339
    PubMedID: 29885525
  • Activation of TRPC1 Channel by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor mGluR5 Modulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Working Memory

    Lepennetier et al (2018) Front. Cell. Neurosci. : 10.3389/fncel.2018.00318
  • Increased α2δ-1-NMDA receptor coupling potentiates glutamatergic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    Chen et al(2018) J Neurochem doi: 10.1111/jnc.14627. : [Epub ahead of print]
    PubMedID: 30431158
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mediates opioid-induced presynaptic NMDA receptor activation and analgesic tolerance.

    Deng et al(2018) J Neurochem doi: 10.1111/jnc.14628. : [Epub ahead of print]
    PubMedID: 30444263
  • In vivo Optogenetic Approach to Study Neuron-Oligodendroglia Interactions in Mouse Pups.

    Ortolani et al (2018) Front Cell Neurosci. 12 : 12:477
    PubMedID: 30574070
  • Impaired reliability and precision of spiking in adults but not juveniles in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome

    Dwivedi et al (2018) bioRxiv : doi:
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Reviews & Product Guides


  • Verified customer

    Works as expected. Works as expected during our electrophysiology experiments.
  • Verified customer

    Works as advertised.
  • Verified customer

    Good stuff. The product works as expected.
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