Tetrodotoxin (citrate free)

(HB1034)

Product overview

  • Name
    Tetrodotoxin (citrate free)
  • Short description
    Potent, selective, use-dependent Na+ channel blocker. Citrate free.
  • Biological description
    Potent, selective and reversible, voltage dependent Na+ channel blocker. Citrate free. Use dependent. Commonly used in electrophysiological preparations to block or reduce excitability.
  • Alternative names
    TTX
  • Biological action
    Blocker
  • Purity
    >99%
  • Special requirements
    As this product is a toxin, customers are required to complete a short end user declaration when ordering. Our customer care team will be happy to help you with this.
  • Customer comments

    Just washed the Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on and it works as expected (it inhibits the fibre volley at 1 μM).Verified customer, The University of Bristol

  • Our products in action

Images

Properties

  • Chemical name
    Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imin o-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]py rimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
  • Molecular Weight
    319.27
  • Chemical structure
    Tetrodotoxin (TTX)  [4368-28-9]
  • Molecular Formula
    C11H17N3O8
  • CAS Number
    4368-28-9
  • PubChem identifier
    4490623
  • SMILES
    C(C1(C2C3C(N=C(NC34C(C1OC(C4O)(O2)O)O)N)O)O)O
  • Source
    Extracted from fugu
  • InChi
    InChI=1S/C11H17N3O8/c12-8-13-6(17)2-4-9(19,1-15)5-3(16)10(2,14-8)7(18)11(20,21-4)22-5/h2-7,15-20H,1H2,(H3,12,13,14)
  • InChiKey
    CFMYXEVWODSLAX-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Applications

  • Application notes

    Tetrodotoxin is commonly used in electrophysiology to block excitability by inhibiting action potential firing within neurons. It is commonly applied at concentrations of 1 μM. Tetrodotoxin from Hello Bio works as expected and blocks action potential firing (see Fig 1 and 2 above).

     

     #Protocol 1: Effect of TTX citrate on action potentials in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and injected with a 500 pA 300 ms current step to induce action potential firing.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM. After each drug application a current step was recorded to assess action potential blockade.

     

    #Protocol 2: Effect of TTX citrate on EPSPs and action potential firing in mouse cortical neurons

    • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
    • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and EPSP were evoked by placing a stimulating electrode close to the recorded the neuron in layer II/III.
    • EPSPs and action potentials were evoked by single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec with an intensity that produced both an EPSP and action potential.
    • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM whist continually evoking and recording EPSP/A.Ps.

Storing and Using Your Product

  • Storage instructions
    -20°C (desiccate)
  • Solubility overview
    Soluble in acidic buffer (pH 4.8) to 3mM
  • Important
    This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.

References for Tetrodotoxin (citrate free)

  • The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (+/-)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.

    Gleitz J et al (1996) Neuropharmacology 35(12) : 1743-52.
    PubMedID: 9076753
  • Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity.

    Ono T et al (2013) J Nippon Med Sch 80(5) : 350-61.
    PubMedID: 24189353
  • Tetrodotoxin: chemistry, toxicity, source, distribution and detection.

    Bane V et al (2014) Toxins (Basel) 6(2) : 693-755.
    PubMedID: 24566728
  • Tetrodotoxin for moderate to severe cancer pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel design multicenter study.

    Hagen NA et al (2008) J Pain Symptom Manage 35(4) : 420-9.
    PubMedID: 18243639

Reviews & Product Guides

Reviews

  • Verified customer, the University of Bristol

    Just washed the Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on and it works as expected (it inhibits the fibre volley at 1 μM).